Task C-1 10-25
Macromolecules are made by joining smaller molecules together.
There are 4 types in cells:
Task C-2 10-28
Nucleic acids - nucleotides are long chains of genetic material.
DNA and RNA contain information to control and reproduce the cell.
The order of the nucleotides is the "code" that contains information.
DNA makes RNA, RNA makes proteins.
Task C-3 10-29
Proteins - long chains of amino acids
that are needed for metabolism.
There are hundreds of proteins,
they each have a function.
Building cells, communication, and
transportation are all done by proteins.
Task C-4 10-30
Lipids - lipids are fats that don't dissolve in water.
They make up cell membranes.
One end is hydrophobic, it doesn't like water.
The other end is hydrophillic, it loves water.
1. What liquids do you know that don't dissolve in water?
Task C-5 11-4
Carbohydrates - sugars, starches, and cellulose.
Used as a power source by animals, plants make them.
It is water molecules with carbon attached,
and carries energy in the chemical bond.
glucose - blood sugar - C6H12O6
sucrose - table sugar - C12H22O11
Task C-6 11-6
Amino Acids - building blocks of proteins,
used for almost all metabolic processes.
There are around 20 amino acids that the
human body uses to build proteins.
There are 9 essential amino acids that we can't make.
1. Where do we get the amino acids that our body can't make?
Task C-7 11-7
We have not mentioned the most abundant, most important
molecule in our cells. All life needs this molecule.
1. What molecule is essential for all life?
Task C-8 11-8
Cell membranes - a flexible covering of a cell.
Its made of lipids, and is selectively permiable.
That means it keeps some things out but other things it lets in.
1. What types of things will a cell membrane keep out?
2. What types of things will it let in?
Task C-9 11-12
Nucleus - Eukaryotic cells' control center,
it directs all cell activities and contains the DNA.
DNA stores the genetic information for reproduction and functions.
RNA is here and other places in the cell.
In 2010, more than 76,000 America's veterans experienced
homelessness on a given night in January, according to the U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs.
The estimated number of homeless veterans dropped from more than 74,000 individuals in 2010 to fewer than 40,000 in 2016.
About 11% of the adult homeless population are veterans.
1 in 8 veterans are unemployed (NPR, 11-11-11)
A recent RAND Corporation study titled “Invisible Wounds: Mental Health and Cognitive Care Needs of America’s Returning Veterans” found that an estimated 1 out of 5 of all service members and veterans suffer from PTSD or some form of major depression.
TASK C-11 11-14
Cell Walls are found in plant cells and some bacteria, fungus and protists.
The cell walls protect and give structure to the cell.
1 What gives us structure?
2. What protect us from viruses?
Task C-12 11-15
Cytoplasm - a fluid inside a cell that is made of water,
salts, and other material the cell needs.
Cytoskeleton - a network of threadlike proteins that
give the cell a framework in animal cells.
1. Why don't plant cells need cytoskeletons?
Task C-13. 11-18
Ribosomes make proteins.
They are in the cytoplasm.
They are also found on the endoplasmic reticulum.
If the ribosomes are there its called the rough ER.
Smooth ER makes lipids and help move things.
Task C-14 11-19
The nucleolus makes ribosomes.
It is a dark spot in the nucleus.
The nuclear envelope is a double membrane
that surrounds the nucleus.
Task C-15 11-20
Water is a polar molecule.
One end is positive, the other negative.
Water is the "universal solvent", it will
cause all matter to eventually fall apart.
1. What is stronger: water or rock?
Task C-16 11-21
Mitochondria - eukaryotic cells have hundreds
to thousands in each cell.
They provide energy by turning glucose (blood sugar)
ATP is used to power cell processes.
Mitochondria have their own DNA that only
gets passed down from mothers.
1. Muscle cells have many mitochondria, why?
TASK C-17 12-2
Muscle cells have many nuclei because
they are made from cells combining together.
Chloroplasts are in plant cells and use light energy
to create food from CO2 and H20.
1. What is this process called?
2. Where did the oxygen in the air come from?
Task C-18 12-3
You can think of cells like cities:
the nucleus is like city hall - it controls things
the cell membrane is like toll booths on highways,
controlling what goes in and out.
Task C-19 12-4
Golgi apparatus - prepares and packages proteins
Think of Vo-Tech
Lysosomes - breaks down and recycle parts of a cell
Think recycling center
Task C-20 12-5
1. What is the main difference between
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
2. What is the main difference between
plants and animal cells?
3. Are fungus more like plants or animals?
4. What is the largest single organism on the planet?When done, install Classroom app from Self Service.Use 7573 to join my period 8 class.
Task C-21 12-6
Passive Transport - the movement of substances
through a cell membrane without using energy.
Diffusion is small molecules like oxygen and carbon dioxide
will pass through trying to equalize the amounts .
Have you ever had a balloon deflate over time?
1. Why do balloons lose pressure over time?
Task C-22 12-9
Osmosis - diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.
The concentration of water wants to be the same (equal)
on both sides of the membrane, and will keep passing
through the membrane until it is.
Task C-23 12-10
Facilitated diffusion is when proteins in the cell membrane
helping some large molecules pass through the lipid bilayer.
Active transport - movement through the cell
membrane that uses energy.
Endocytosis - things enter a cell by the
membrane surrounding it.
Exocytosis - things are released outside the cell membrane.
TASK C-24 12--12
As cells get larger, the ratio of surface area
to volume goes down
This means large cells have a hard time moving
enough material in and out.
1. What is called going IN to a cell.
2. What is it called going OUT of a cell?
Task C-25 12-13
CELLULAR RESPIRATION - a series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food into ATP.
Glycolosis - glucose breaking down in a cell
TASK C- 26 12-16
Fermentation - when oxygen isn't available, cells will
break down glucose into either:
lactic acid - builds up in muscles
alcohol and CO2- causes bread to rise
1. Why do your muscles get sore after you work out?
Task C-27 12-17
Cilia - short hair like structures that move.
It can move the cell, or it can move material past the cell.
flagella - long, whip-like appendages that move the cell.
CHLOROPLASTS - contains chlorophyll that conduct photosynthesis.
TASK C-28 12-18
photosynthesis - plants create food by adding
CO2 to H2O with the sun's energy.
This creates glucose and releases oxygen.
Oxygen in the air is kept there by photosynthesis.
Respiration and photosynthesis are the same reaction,
Task C-29 12-19
Task C-30 1-3
TASK C-31 1-4
1. What color is chlorophyll?
TASK C-32 1-7
Photosynthesis is the base of the food web on Earth.
Plants provide food for almost all other life.
Muscle cells - animal cells that have more than one nuclei because