• Task C-1              10-25

    Macromolecules are made by joining smaller molecules together.

    There are 4 types in cells:

    nucleic acids





    Task C-2             10-28

    Nucleic acids - nucleotides are long chains of genetic material.

    DNA and RNA contain information to control and reproduce the cell.

    The order of the nucleotides is the "code" that contains information.

    DNA makes RNA, RNA makes proteins.


    Task C-3         10-29

    Proteins - long chains of amino acids

    that are needed for metabolism.

    There are hundreds of proteins,

    they each have a function.

    Building cells, communication, and

    transportation are all done by proteins. 




    Task C-4      10-30

    Lipids - lipids are fats that don't dissolve in water.

    They make up cell membranes.

    One end is hydrophobic,  it doesn't like water.

    The other end is hydrophillic, it loves water.

    1.  What liquids do you know that don't dissolve in water?





    Task C-5      11-4

    Carbohydrates - sugars, starches, and cellulose.

    Used as a power source by animals, plants make them.

    It is water molecules with carbon attached,

    and carries energy in the chemical bond.

    glucose - blood sugar -   C6H12O6

    sucrose - table sugar - C12H22O11 




    CHONP Rap  


    Task C-6        11-6

    Amino Acids - building blocks of proteins,

    used for almost all metabolic processes.

    There are around 20 amino acids that the

    human body uses to build proteins.

    There are 9 essential amino acids that we can't make.

    1.  Where do we get the amino acids that our body can't make?


    Task C-7      11-7

    We have not mentioned the most abundant, most important

    molecule in our cells.  All life needs this molecule.

    1.  What molecule is essential for all life?


    Polar molecule


    Task C-8          11-8

    Cell membranes - a flexible covering of a cell.

    Its made of lipids, and is selectively permiable.

    That means it keeps some things out but other things it lets in.

    1.  What types of things will a cell membrane keep out?

    2.  What types of things will it let in?




    Task C-9        11-12

    Nucleus - Eukaryotic cells' control center,

    it directs all cell activities and contains the DNA.

    DNA stores the genetic information for reproduction and functions.

    RNA is here and other places in the cell.

    Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic AS

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    About 11% of the adult homeless population are veterans.


    1 in 8 veterans are unemployed (NPR, 11-11-11)

    A recent RAND Corporation study titled “Invisible Wounds: Mental Health and Cognitive Care Needs of America’s Returning Veterans” found that an estimated 1 out of 5 of all service members and veterans suffer from PTSD or some form of major depression.





     TASK C-11           11-14

    Cell Walls are found in plant cells and some bacteria, fungus and protists.

    The cell walls protect and give structure to the cell.

    1  What gives us structure?

    2.  What protect us from viruses?


    Task C-12            11-15

    Cytoplasm - a fluid inside a cell that is made of water,

    salts, and other material the cell needs.


    Cytoskeleton - a network of threadlike proteins that

    give the cell a framework in animal cells.

    1.  Why don't plant cells need cytoskeletons?



    Cytoplasm video  


    Task C-13.     11-18

    Ribosomes make proteins.

    They are in the cytoplasm.

    They are also found on the endoplasmic reticulum.

    If the ribosomes are there its called the rough ER.

    Smooth ER makes lipids and help move things.


    Protein Synthesis


    Task C-14     11-19

    The nucleolus makes ribosomes.

    It is a dark spot in the nucleus.

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane

    that surrounds the nucleus.


    Task C-15   11-20

    Water is a polar molecule.

    One end is positive, the other negative.

    Water is the "universal solvent", it will

    cause all matter to eventually fall apart.

    1.  What is stronger:  water or rock? 






    Task C-16          11-21

    Mitochondria - eukaryotic cells have hundreds

    to thousands in each cell.

    They provide energy by turning glucose (blood sugar)

    into ATP.

    ATP is used to power cell processes.

    Mitochondria have their own DNA that only

    gets passed down from mothers.

    1.  Muscle cells have many mitochondria, why?


    AS mitochondria


    TASK C-17          12-2

    Muscle cells have many nuclei because

    they are made from cells combining together.


    Chloroplasts are in plant cells and use light energy

    to create food from CO2 and H20.

    1.  What is this process called?

    2.  Where did the oxygen in the air come from?


    Chloroplasts Video


    Task C-18           12-3

    You can think of cells like cities:

    the nucleus is like city hall - it controls things

    the cell membrane is like toll booths on highways,

    controlling what goes in and out.

    Cell Tour



    Task C-19       12-4

    Golgi apparatus - prepares and packages proteins

    Think of Vo-Tech

    Lysosomes - breaks down and recycle parts of a cell

    Think recycling center



    Task C-20     12-5

    1.  What is the main difference between

    prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?


    2.  What is the main difference between

    plants and animal cells?


    3.  Are fungus more like plants or animals?

    4.  What is the largest single organism on the planet?


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    Task C-21         12-6


    Passive Transport - the movement of substances

    through a cell membrane without using energy.


    Diffusion is small molecules like oxygen and carbon dioxide

    will pass through trying to equalize the amounts .

    Have you ever had a balloon deflate over time?

    1.  Why do balloons lose pressure over time?




    Task C-22      12-9

    Osmosis - diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.

    The concentration of water wants to be the same (equal)

    on both sides of the membrane, and will keep passing

    through the membrane until it is.





    Task C-23      12-10

    Facilitated diffusion is when proteins in the cell membrane

    helping some large molecules pass through the lipid bilayer.


    Active transport - movement through the cell

    membrane that uses energy.

    Endocytosis - things enter a cell by the

    membrane surrounding it.

    Exocytosis - things are released outside the cell membrane.




    TASK C-24     12--12

    As cells get larger, the ratio of surface area

    to volume goes down

    This means large cells have a hard time moving

    enough material in and out.


    1.  What is called going IN to a cell.

    2.  What is it called going OUT of a cell?


    Electron MS


    Task C-25      12-13

    CELLULAR RESPIRATION - a series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food into ATP.


    Glycolosis - glucose breaking down in a cell 


      TASK C- 26    12-16

    Fermentation - when oxygen isn't available, cells will

    break down glucose into either:

               lactic acid - builds up in muscles

               alcohol and CO2- causes bread to rise 


    1.  Why do your muscles get sore after you work out?

    Task C-27          12-17

    Single-celled organisms:

    Cilia - short hair like structures that move.  

    It can move the cell, or it can move material past the cell.

    flagella - long, whip-like appendages that move the cell.



    CHLOROPLASTS - contains chlorophyll that conduct photosynthesis.





    TASK C-28     12-18

    photosynthesis - plants create food by adding

    CO2 to H2O with the sun's energy.

    This creates glucose and releases oxygen.

    Oxygen in the air is kept there by photosynthesis.

    Respiration and photosynthesis are the same reaction,

    but opposite.







    Task C-29    12-19




    Task C-30   1-3



    TASK C-31   1-4



    1.  What color is chlorophyll?


    TASK C-32    1-7

    Photosynthesis is the base of the food web on Earth.

    Plants provide food for almost all other life.











    Muscle cells - animal cells that have more than one nuclei because